Kaku, Michio. Hyperspace: a scientific odyssey through parallel universes, time warps, and the tenth dimension / Michio Kaku; illustrations by. Robert O'Keefe. HYPERSPACE A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the Tenth Dimension Michio Kaku Illustrations by Robert O'Keefe ANCHOR. PDF | "There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact".
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
PDF | The work is a literature review of the book "Hyperspace" authored by Dr. michio Kaku. I found the book so inspiration and a joyful read. and the future of the cosmos/Michio Kaku.—1st ed. p. cm. . earlier books on physics, Beyond Einstein and Hyperspace, which helped to introduce to the public. Hyperspace Michio Kaku - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.
The program opened up an entirely new world for me.
I was thrilled by the thought of one day rocketing to an alien planet and exploring its strange terrain. Being pulled into the orbit of these fantastic inventions I knew that my own destiny was PREFACE somehow wrapped up with the marvels of the science that the show promised.
As it turns out, I was not alone. The great astronomer Edwin Hubble was fascinated by the works of Jules Verne. As a result of reading Verne's work, Hubble abandoned a promising career in law, and, disobeying his father's wishes, set off on a career in science.
Carl Sagan, noted astronomer and bestselling author, found his imagination set afire by reading Edgar Rice Burroughs's John Carter of Mars novels. Like John Carter, he dreamed of one day exploring the sands of Mars. The next day I saw in the newspapers a picture of his desk, with the unfinished manuscript of his greatest, unfinished work. I asked myself, What could be so important that the greatest scientist of our time could not finish it?
The article claimed that Einstein had an impossible dream, a problem so difficult that it was not possible for a mortal to finish it. It took me years to find out what that manuscript was about: a grand, unifying "theory of everything. As I grew older I began to realize that although Flash Gordon was the hero and always got the girl, it was the scientist who actually made the TV series work.
Without Dr. Zarkov, there would be no rocket ship, no trips to Mongo, no saving Earth.
Heroics aside, without science there is no science fiction. I came to realize that these tales were simply impossible in terms of the science involved, just flights of the imagination. Growing up meant putting away such fantasy. In real life, I was told, one had to abandon the impossible and embrace the practical.
However, I concluded that if I was to continue my fascination with the impossible, the key was through the realm of physics. I realized I needed to immerse myself in advanced mathematics and learn theoretical physics. So that is what I did. In high school for my science fair project I assembled an atom smasher in my mom's garage. I went to the Westinghouse company and gathered pounds of scrap transformer steel.
Over Christmas I wound 22 miles of copper wire on the high school football field. The goal was to generate a beam of gamma rays powerful enough to create antimatter. My science fair project took me to the National Science Fair and eventually fulfilled my dream, winning a scholarship to Harvard, where I could finally pursue my goal of becoming a theoretical physicist and follow in the footsteps of my role model, Albert Einstein.
Growing up, I remember my teacher one day walking up to the map of the Earth on the wall and pointing out the coastlines of South America and Africa.
Wasn't it an odd coincidence, she said, that the two coastlines fit together, almost like a jigsaw puzzle? Some scientists, she said, speculated that perhaps they were once part of the same, vast continent. But that was silly. No force could possibly push two gigantic continents apart. Because the false vacuum of a 10D universe was unstable we assume, but cannot prove, that it quantum tunneled to a lower energy state, breaking symmetry and creating a true vacuum in 4D space.
But if it is not the true vacuum then one day a small bubble may appear and enlarge at the speed of light until it destroys our universe. Our 4D universe can curl up in 4 ways but a 10D one can curl up in millions of ways. So, to find the right one, we need to solve the field theory of strings using the theory of phase transitions--the most difficult problem in quantum theory.
In the heterotic string theory of David Gross one of the four Princeton physicists known as the Princeton string quartet showed that the quantum unit of gravity emerges as the smallest vibration of a closed string. Since the laws of physics break down at the very small distances and large energies of the big bang, we need a string theory with 10 dimensions that breaks into 6 plus 4 to create twin universes of which the 6 is an orbifold too small to observe.
Kaku says that only 10D superstring theory can explain what happens before the big bang but of course Valenkin and Hawking and others have alternatives. Even in the string theory of the big bang, a small piece of the universe must inflate by a factor of 10 to the 50th, so apparently all of inflation is included.
It has been frequently theorized that black holes may be tunnels in spacetime to other universes. Along with its untestability and lack of any conceptual foundation, a further problem is that the math is so general that it has millions of solutions orbifolds which include all of physics General relativity, Grand Unified Theories etc and there is no way to decide which one of them describes our universe.
Some or all? One cannot simply put a computer to work to decide which solution is right for our universe for the same reasons one cannot solve quantum tunneling etc. Though neither Kaku nor anyone else I have read has said so, it seems that the math of 26 D geometry is so powerful that it could describe any possible universe. In this case it is understandable why it lacks a conceptual foundation as it has no special relation to our universe. One of the things that makes many think math is out there in the universe rather than in here in our minds.
Naively, one could say that the structure of the universe makes, our mind so is it a surprise that our thoughts e. The de ate o the u reaso a le effe ti e ess of athe ati s Wigner continues but to me it is just another group of confusions about which language games we are playing see my other articles.
For a recent excellent article by an engineer though of course with no clue about Wittge stei or la guage ga es see Derek A ott The reaso a le i effe ti e ess of athe ati s Vol. The compelling way in which pure math yields physical results is illustrated by the discovery of a mathematician who was just looking for another solution to the equations of general relativity.
By assuming a black hole rotates, Roy Kern in found a solution and thus an exact representation of black holes. But, at this density of mass- energy, general relativity breaks down and quantum effects probably dominate so maybe we can find an answer with string theory. Likewise with time travel. By making various assumptions about the universe one can come up with many different solutions to relativity. It turns out that van Stockum had derived a CTC solution in pointed out by cosmologist Frank Tipler, who recently became infamous for his book proving the existence of God from physics and many have done so since Godel, usually using black holes or an expanding universe.
It appears that all CTC will violate causality. As one of the principal founders of quantum cosmology, Hawking proposed that wormholes could be used to enter other universes.
Ever daring, he used quantum theory to treat the entire universe as a quantum particle represented by a wave function which will be large for our universe but small for others. Assuming they are connected by wormholes, Sidney Coleman summed the contributions of an infinite series of universes, to show that if the cosmological constant CC is zero then the wave function is large i. If the CC is not zero, then that universe has zero probability i. It seems theoretically possible to create one using the negative energy i.
Godel showed that math is incomplete see y arti les for a Wittge stei ia a alysis of this and physicists have shown that quantum theory is also incomplete e. However the cosmic wave function is a composite of all possible universes so indeterminacy remains. The smallest quantum unit is the space of all possible universes, in some of which the cat is dead and some alive.
Superstring theory SST has stretched math to its limits and needs more advanced math to evolve. Physics needs the self consistent structures of math so it combines topology and the Reimannian geometry of general relativity ie, groups of quantum field theories to eliminate the infinities i.
It seems to me that the most complex products of the brain--SST and topology, are recursive to quantum field theory and the behavior of particles and the entire universe.
Though Kaku does not discuss incompleteness, we know that math is proven Godel, Chaitin, etc. Then, since math and physics are now fused at the highest level Superstring theory , the one can create a language game in which there is a nontrivial sense in which physics and the whole universe and the mind are incomplete as well. Or rather there is no significance or a y ie s or o epts la guage ga es of sig ifi a e. String theory unites physics with many of the most advanced and formerly separate areas of math--SuperLie and Kac-Moody algebras, modular functions, finite groups, algebraic topology, Riemannian geometry and cohomology theory.
But it remains without a conceptual basis, so we are left to wonder if there is anything other than powerful math that unites quantum theory and gravitation. Kaku does not dwell on the problem of emergence, but physical scientists can rarely resist reductionism. However, the quantum field equations are so difficult that they cannot be solved for one atom and not even for a vacuum.
They require an infinite time to compute. One only finds out the emergent properties of things that result from combining smaller things by seeing what they are like after the fact--whether they are quarks making a proton, molecules making cells, or stars making a universe.
One also has uncertainty and chaos. We have no way to determine in what way and when a pile of sand will collapse. Physics has to wait for the results at the micro subatomic particles and macro cosmological observations scales before advancing and it is full of uncertainty and bizarre phenomena. Also, there seems to be no way we can ever test SST the theories change constantly but the bottom line is that we will never be able to do experiments at the requisite energy 10 to the 19th BEV —i.