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By the time Giraud embarked on the OK Corral cycle, publishing rights had returned to Dargaud, and that publisher decided to revitalize the magazine serialized pre-publication format as part of their marketing effort on behalf of Blueberry's return see below , albeit with a twist; As Dargaud no longer had a comic magazine of their own Pilote had become defunct in , it was decided to farm out pre-publication to parties who showed the most interest, resulting in that Blueberry titles in that cycle became serialized in different publications, not all necessarily comic-related by origin.
The next title, "OK Corral", was published in a similar manner in the summer of in the "L'ExpressMag" appendix of the non-comic weekly news magazine L'Express.
The mere fact that serious newspapers and magazines were by then vying for the opportunity to run Blueberry in their publications first aside from the above-mentioned publications, the newspaper France-Soir had already run the first two outings of the revitalized La Jeunesse de Blueberry series in and — see below , was testament to the status Blueberry and its creator s had by then attained in French society. Royalties conflict — [ edit ] "That was a coincidence all right.
It coincided with the break between Jean-Michel and Dargaud, where questionable issues in regard to authors' rights were in play. Already in , Charlier made his displeasure known in this regard, when he had "Angel Face" pre-published in Nouveau Tintin of industry competitor Le Lombard, the very first time a Blueberry adventure was not serialized in Pilote — nor would it ever be again in hindsight.
The magazine was forced to drop the announcement page it had prepared for the story. Then Giraud left on his own accord. While Charlier had no influence on this whatsoever, it did serve a purpose as far as he was concerned.
Giraud had left Blueberry on a cliff-hanger with "Angel Face", resulting in an insatiable demand for more, putting the pressure on Dargaud. Whenever Georges Dargaud asked Charlier for a next Blueberry adventure, repeatedly, Charlier was now able to respond that he was "devoid of inspiration".
For Giraud the conflict was actually a godsend, "At that moment Charlier and I also had a financial conflict with Dargaud which came at the exact right time, because it provided me with an alibi [to leave]". Very eager to return to Los Angeles as Jodorowksy requested his presence again, Giraud — who had returned to France for his other work during one of the lulls in the Dune production — greatly accelerated his work on "Angel Face", then underway, breaking his "absolute record speed-drawing", as he had coined it, and sheared off weeks from its originally intended completion date.
Upon his return, Charlier took one look at the pages completed in his absence, and continued where Giraud had left off without further much ado. It was while he was working on two documentaries on the Mexican Revolution that he gained inspiration for his below-mentioned Les Gringos Western comic series, which started its run in at Koralle. Yet, I think one can not discern its difficult birth; there are good scenes, pages I really poured heart and soul into.
It is true that [the art for] "Le hors-la-loi" "The Outlaw" had been quite weak, but "Angel Face" made up for it". But it is no longer the same. I won't be taken in by Blueberry anymore! On that occasion Charlier, owning a law degree,  stipulated an exemption clause for magazine pre- publications of his own co- creations.
Yet, Georges Dargaud refused to take the bait and the creators subsequently put forward the Jim Cutlass western comic as a last ditch effort to spell out to Dargaud that the creators had other options. Dargaud still would not budge. It was then that it became clear to Charlier, that he was left with no other option than to leave, and this he did taking all his other co-creations with him, to wit Redbeard and Tanguy et Laverdure , which, while not as popular as Blueberry, were steady money making properties for Dargaud nonetheless.
The choice for the German publisher was made for their very ambitious international expansion strategy they had in place at that time. Fully subscribing to the publisher's strategy, Charlier not only revitalized his Redbeard and Tanguy et Laverdure comic series — having been equally "devoid of inspiration" for these as well in the Pilote-era because of the royalties issue — , but created the new Western comic, Les Gringos art by Victor de la Fuente , as well.
Yet, for all Charlier's business acumen, he had failed to recognize that Koralle's exuberant expansion drive had essentially been a do-or-die effort on their part. In Koralle was on the verge of bankruptcy, and a scheme was devised to stave off this fate; international expansion.
In the European comics world that was a rather novel idea at the time and Koralle did expand beyond the German border into large parts of Europe with variants of their main publication Zack magazine, with the revived Blueberry as its flagship, accompanied with comic book releases.
The most prominent of the latter was Hermann Huppen with his new post-apocalyptic Western Jeremiah for which he had abandoned that other famed s Franco-Belgian Western, Comanche written by Greg , second only in renown after Blueberry at the time.
As a token of goodwill, a relieved Springer, as they now could turn over the current contractual obligations without much further ado, even allowed the French-language version of Zack, Super As, to run for a few issues longer in order to allow as many series as possible to complete their magazine run, which included "La longue marche". Novedi was established in November with its seat in Brussels, Belgium.
Part of their strategy was to forego on a magazine of their own and instead release titles directly in album format, as it was noticed that the serialized comic magazine format had already started to wane in Europe as a format and actually one of the main reasons for Axel Springer to pull the plug on Koralle , resulting in the advantage of not having to incur the expenses of maintaining magazine editorial offices.
Any still existing comic magazine elsewhere, willing to publish serialized comic series after the initial book releases, was merely considered an added bonus. As impromptu publisher, EDIBD published around two dozen album titles, including "La longue marche", before turning the copyrights of these over to Novedi,  which started publishing themselves in EDIBD published their books for Belgium and the Netherlands themselves, but farmed out licenses for other countries, including France somewhat surprisingly, where Giraud's former alma mater and Hachette competitor Fleurus firstly became the album publisher for "La longue marche".
Hachette incidentally, later acquired a special, one-time only license from Dargaud to reissue the entirety of the Blueberry series in as the 52 volume La Collection Blueberry anthology, each volume augmented with a six-page illustrated editorial. The s saw three additions to the main series completing the Rehabilitation story arc as well as four new titles in the newly created La Jeunesse de Blueberry series.
Nevertheless, despite the two Blueberry incarnations and Jeremiah being the top selling series for the publisher, it appeared that the financial base was too narrow for even a publisher the modest size of Novedi, as the publisher went out of business in , after having published approximately album titles, and despite having taken over the book publications for France themselves as well in the latter half of the decade.
Death of a creator [ edit ] "I have twenty completed pages, the rest consists of annotations and loose ideas I was not quite on board with the development of the story yet, we still had not decided upon anything.
There were some great ideas, which needed to be finalized. By all accounts Charlier had been a workaholic throughout his career, working simultaneously on as much as a dozen projects at any given time, steadily increasing his workload as he grew older.
His heart condition had already troubled him in his later years and his death, while sudden, was not entirely a surprise. There were always seven to eight scenarios underway. His life was a true path of self-destruction.
You should have seen him working at his desk! Six months before his passing, I advised him to calm down. Very artistically, he replied: No, I have chosen this! Nonetheless, he never tried to hinder Giraud in the least, as he understood that an artist of Giraud's caliber needed a "mental shower" from time to time.
However, as he recognized quit early on that Blueberry occupied a special place in his body of work, he later made sure that only his Blueberry artists were provided with scripts in a timely fashion. Charlier's method of working came at a cost however, as his scripts frequently contained continuity errors on the detail level, and which included those of Blueberry, such as in his above cited instance of his hero's first name.
Due to his intimate twenty-five year familiarity with both the series and its writer, it was a foregone conclusion that Giraud would from then on take on the scripting of the main series as well, especially since it was already agreed upon in the "contracts signed with Jean-Michel" that "the survivor would take over the series". Furthermore, per French law, Charlier's widow Christine remained entitled to 10 percent of the revenues from the existing and subsequent post-Charlier Blueberry titles, which provided her with a "decent" living standard, according to son Philippe, in effect to an extent contradicting his own claim on the same occasion.
Some of the first pages he showed us then were radically different from the ones ultimately published in the album later on. I did not had the time to read the scripts for those pages he had shown us, but I know that Jean redid several pages entirely anew, before the album was eventually released".
Giraud stated that the series had lost its "father", and that the "mother needed time to mourn". Yet, Giraud undertook no further action himself, partly because he was still residing in the United States, too preoccupied with his own projects and the wrapping up of his affairs over there before his return to France and thus too busy to be engaged in secret negotiations with Novedi ,  and partly because his marriage to his first wife Claudine was in the early stages of falling apart at the time.
It turned out that Philippe was actually picking up where his father had left off. Shortly after he had established Alpen and unbeknownst to Giraud, Giger was already approached by Charlier Sr. The veteran Charlier had already sensed the writings on the wall at Novedi and discussed plans with Giger to have all his comic creations moved over to the new publisher, and to this end had already arranged his old friend fr:Guy Vidal from his Pilote days to be hired as editor-in-chief at the new publisher, incidentally in the process doing exactly what his son had accused Novedi of.
We were shareholders with the Charlier family," stated Giger, confirming the preliminary dealings with the author in his final year. Ironically, it was Philippe Charlier, among others, who indirectly conceded the point when he accused Giraud of wanting "to settle scores" with Charlier Sr.